idealised form of reality, whilst the
dead, gnarled, and wretched things in
Dante's wood are a debasement of that
into something grotesquely real (material).
“Bakhtin associates the grotesque with
the human body in all its coarse,
clumsy earthiness and changeful mortality,
focusing on material thingness of the
human subject rather than intellect or
For Kristeva the abject is “the in-between,
the ambiguous, the composite." Any phenomenon
“that disturbs identity, system and order."